A northwest rainforest in Western Montana?? How can this be?? Scientist have noticed that parts of western Montana and northern Idaho look like chunks of northwest rainforest from the Pacific Coast that have been plucked and plopped 350 miles inland. One such chunk is a short distance from Smoky Bear Ranch and easy to access. Plants like Western Red Cedar, Western Hemlock, and Skunk Cabbage which exist in Olympic National Park west of Seattle also exist in these unique ecosystems in Western Montana. Scientists have identified many flora and fauna species that live in both places. So how did this happen?
The earth’s crust is made up of plates that fit together. These plates move slowly and collide and buckle either over or under each other and sometimes they will push upward to form mountains. Between 65 and 90 million years ago, the Farallon Plate slide under the North American plate to form the Rocky Mountains. When this happened, northern Idaho and western Montana were the west coast and today’s Oregon and Washington were continental islands floating on their own plates in the Pacific Ocean.
These continental islands drifted eastward over the next 10 million years and stacked up against the existing west coast to form the new Pacific Coast. Moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean dropped rain across this region which created a huge rainforest all the way to the Rocky Mountains. The dinosaurs had long since disappeared but other flora and fauna like salamanders, toads, frogs, slugs, aquatic insects, and water plants continued to exist. These flora and fauna are considered to be species found in the Pacific Coast rainforests. But they also continue to exist in isolated ecosystems in western Montana and northern Idaho.
Geological events created this giant rain forest but they also destroyed most of it. Lava flows from Oregon flowed east covering a large area of the rainforest in eastern Oregon and central Idaho with molten rock. About 5 million years ago, the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington formed. These mountains caused the air masses coming in off the Puget Sound to condense and fall as rain on the west side of these mountains causing a “rain shadow” on the east side. This lack of rain in the “rain shadow” area caused the rainforest to dry up and turn into the dry scrub-land and prairie that it is today.
The air masses gained moisture as they passed over the dry lands of eastern Oregon and Washington. As these air masses reached northern Idaho and western Montana, they had retained enough moisture to produce the precipitation needed to support the thirsty rainforest flora and fauna. This was the pattern for the next several million years. Then about 2 millions years ago the climate changed again.
Along came the Pleistocene Epoch, a 2 million year ice age which cooled the entire planet. Even though the average temperature was only a few degrees cooler than those of today, snow piled up high and created great slabs of ice covering Canada and the Rockies. These glaciers formed present day Montana and whittled the peaks of the Rockies. Some of these glaciers were up to 1 mile thick and covered the inland rainforests in northern Idaho and western Montana. But some of the southern portions of these rainforests in valleys where the lower elevations created warmer temperatures escaped this glaciation as it was too warm to sustain the thick ice. These rainforest remnants are know as refugia – places which still contain populations of once widespread flora and fauna creating the Glacier National Park Rainforest near us.
Glacier National Park Rainforest“The Land That Time Forgot” and after reading it we realized it described exactly the ecosystem of the Glacier National Park Rainforest near us.
Scientists have discovered about 150 species of flora and fauna plus many more insects existing in both the rainforests of the Pacific Coast and this Glacier National Park Rainforest. Two of the most noticeable plants in this nearby rainforest are Skunk Cabbage and Lady Fern.
Western Red Cedar
Green False Hellebore
So when you stay at Smoky Bear Ranch, ask about a visit to this Glacier National Park Rainforest. We’d love to show you how to get there or even give you a personal tour through this unique ecosystem. But watch as you navigate the ladder style bridges so you don’t step on one of the frogs sunning itself. If you are a plant expert, we’d love for you to help us identify some of the other 150 or so species of plant life in this Glacier Park Rainforest.